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You have 0 item s in your cart. Customer Log In Intelligence Center. Shopping Cart. To improve this situation, Boeing has developed human factors tools to help understand why the errors occur and develop suggestions for systematic improvements. Two of the tools operate on the philosophy that when airline personnel either flight crews or mechanics make errors, contributing factors in the work environment are part of the causal chain. To prevent such errors in the future, those contributing factors must be identified and, where possible, eliminated or mitigated.
The tools are. This tool, for which training began in mid, is an analytic tool created to help the airline industry effectively manage the risks associated with flight crew procedural deviations. PEAT assumes that there are reasons why the flight crew member failed to follow a procedure or made an error and that the error was not intentional.
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Based on this assumption, a trained investigator interviews the flight crew to collect detailed information about the procedural deviation and the contributing factors associated with it. This detailed information is then entered into a database for further analysis. PEAT is the first industry tool to focus on procedurally related incident investigations in a consistent and structured manner so that effective remedies can be developed see below. This tool began as an effort to collect more information about maintenance errors.
It developed into a project to provide maintenance organizations with a standardized process for analyzing contributing factors to errors and developing possible corrective actions see "Boeing Introduces MEDA" in Airliner magazine, April-June , and " Human Factors Process for Reducing Maintenance Errors " in Aero no.
MEDA is intended to help airlines shift from blaming maintenance personnel for making errors to systematically investigating and understanding contributing causes.
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In maintenance practices, those factors typically include misleading or incorrect information, design issues, inadequate communication, and time pressure. Boeing maintenance human factors experts worked with industry maintenance personnel to develop the MEDA process. Once developed, the process was tested with eight operators under a contract with the U.
Federal Aviation Administration. Since the inception of MEDA in , the Boeing maintenance human factors group has provided on-site implementation support to more than organizations around the world. A variety of operators have witnessed substantial safety improvements, and some have also experienced significant economic benefits because of reduced maintenance errors.
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Three other tools that assist in managing error are. Crew information requirements analysis CIRA. Boeing developed the CIRA process to better understand how flight crews use the data and cues they are given. It provides a way to analyze how crews acquire, interpret, and integrate data into information upon which to base their actions. CIRA helps Boeing understand how the crew arrived or failed to arrive at an understanding of events. Since it was developed in the mids, CIRA has been applied internally in safety analyses supporting airplane design, accident and incident analyses, and research.
Training aids. Boeing has applied its human factors expertise to help develop training aids to improve flight safety. Boeing proposed and led a training tool effort with participation from line pilots in the industry. The team designed and conducted scientifically based simulator studies to determine whether the proposed training aid would be effective in helping crews cope with this safety issue.
Similarly, the controlled flight into terrain training aid resulted from a joint effort by flight crew training instructor pilots, human factors engineering, and aerodynamics engineering. Improved use of automation. Both human factors scientists and flight crews have reported that flight crews can become confused about the state of advanced automation, such as the autopilot, autothrottle, and flight management computer.
This condition is often referred to as decreased mode awareness. The Boeing Human Factors organization is involved in a number of activities to further reduce or eliminate automation surprises and to ensure more complete mode awareness by flight crews. The primary approach is to better communicate the automated system principles, better understand flight crew use of automated systems, and systematically document skilled flight crew strategies for using automation. Boeing is conducting these activities in cooperation with scientists from the U. National Aeronautics and Space Administration fig.
When complete, Boeing will use the results to improve future designs of the crewmember-automation interface and to make flight crew training more effective and efficient.
Human factors principles usually associated with the flight deck are now being applied to examine human performance functions and ensure that cabin crews and passengers are able to do what they need or want to do. Some recent examples illustrate how the passenger cabin can benefit from human factors expertise applied during design. These include. Automatic overwing exit.
Human performance and ergonomics methods played important roles in both its design and testing. Computer analyses using human models ensured that both large and small people would be able to operate the exit door without injury. The handle was redesigned and tested to ensure that anyone could operate the door using either single or double handgrips. Then, approximately people who were unfamiliar with the design and who had never operated an overwing exit participated in tests to verify that the average adult can operate the exit in an emergency. The exit tests revealed a significantly improved capability to evacuate the airplane.
This major benefit was found to be unique to the configuration. The human factors methodology applied during test design and data analysis contributed significantly to refining the door mechanism design for optimal performance.
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Other cabin applications. Working with payloads designers, human factors specialists also evaluated cabin crew and passenger reach capability, placard comprehension, emergency lighting adequacy, and other human performance issues.
Because of the focus on human capabilities and limitations, the analyses and design recommendations were effective in reducing potential errors and in increasing usability and satisfaction with Boeing products. More general issues of human usability have also been addressed. For instance, human factors specialists collaborated with engineers in various studies during ER program design.
The reach and visibility of the passenger service units components were reviewed so cabin crews could use them more easily and effectively. The glare ratio on the sidewalls was analyzed and improved for increased passenger comfort. In addition, the cabin crew panel for controlling the in-flight entertainment system was modified for easier operation and maintainability. Improving the safety of flight operations depends on understanding the lessons learned from operational events. Success depends on having sufficient data to do so. A more proactive approach is needed if we are to move forward.
Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain insightful data in an aviation system that focuses on accountability. Flight and maintenance crews are often unduly exposed to blame because they are the last line of defense when unsafe conditions arise. We must overcome this "blame" culture and encourage all members of our operations to be forthcoming after any incident.
We must be careful not to limit data collection to any one segment of the safety chain. Boeing believes that if we, the aviation community, hope to further reduce the overall accident rate, we must continue to promote and implement proactive, nonpunitive safety reporting programs designed to collect and analyze aviation safety information. Book Description Airlife Pub Ltd, Condition: Brand New. In Stock. Seller Inventory zk Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory n.
Robert Hewson. Publisher: Aerospace Publishing , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis A new fully revised edition of this comprehensive guide to all the world's main passenger aircraft and the airlines that fly them.
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