Sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and insomnia , as well as particularly short duration of sleep or particularly long duration of sleep, have been found to be associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk. Cardiovascular disease affects low- and middle-income countries even more than high-income countries.
Psychosocial factors, environmental exposures, health behaviours, and health-care access and quality contribute to socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease. Particulate matter has been studied for its short- and long-term exposure effects on cardiovascular disease. Currently, PM 2. Existing cardiovascular disease or a previous cardiovascular event, such as a heart attack or stroke, is the strongest predictor of a future cardiovascular event.
They include family history, coronary artery calcification score, high sensitivity C-reactive protein hs-CRP , ankle—brachial pressure index , lipoprotein subclasses and particle concentration, lipoprotein a , apolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogen , white blood cell count, homocysteine , N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP , and markers of kidney function. There is evidence that mental health problems, in particular depression and traumatic stress, is linked to cardiovascular diseases.
Whereas mental health problems are known to be associated with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as smoking, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle, these factors alone do not explain the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases seen in depression, stress, and anxiety. Little is known about the relationship between work and cardiovascular disease, but links have been established between certain toxins, extreme heat and cold, exposure to tobacco smoke, and mental health concerns such as stress and depression.
A SBU-report looking at non-chemical factors found an association for those: . Specifically the risk of stroke was also increased by exposure to ionizing radiation. A SBU report found evidence that workplace exposure to silica dust , engine exhaust or welding fumes is associated with heart disease. Workplace exposure to silica dust or asbestos is also associated with pulmonary heart disease.
There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenoxyacids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminium is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke. As of , evidence suggests that certain leukemia -associated mutations in blood cells may also lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesis , and cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality. Population-based studies show that atherosclerosis, the major precursor of cardiovascular disease, begins in childhood.
Strategies for the prevention and treatment of sudden cardiac death
The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth PDAY study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7—9 years. This is extremely important considering that 1 in 3 people die from complications attributable to atherosclerosis. In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease,  as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. Screening ECGs either at rest or with exercise are not recommended in those without symptoms who are at low risk.
Electrical Diseases of the Heart, Volume 1, Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention
The NIH recommends lipid testing in children beginning at the age of 2 if there is a family history of heart disease or lipid problems. Screening and selection for primary prevention interventions has traditionally been done through absolute risk using a variety of scores ex.
Framingham or Reynolds risk scores. The number and variety of risk scores available for use has multiplied, but their efficacy according to a review was unclear due to lack of external validation or impact analysis. Most guidelines recommend combining preventive strategies. A Cochrane Review found some evidence that interventions aiming to reduce more than one cardiovascular risk factor may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference; however, evidence was limited and the authors were unable to draw firm conclusions on the effects on cardiovascular events and mortality.
It is unclear whether or not dental care in those with periodontitis affects their risk of cardiovascular disease.
- Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention.
- Electrical Diseases of the Heart.
- Norman Podhoretz and Commentary Magazine: The Rise and Fall of the Neocons.
- Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns: 6th International Conference, CAIP 95 Prague, Czech Republic, September 6–8, 1995 Proceedings;
- Theories of Performance: Organizational and Service Improvement in the Public Domain;
- Non-linear Vibrations.
- Abbreviations and acronyms;
A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Total fat intake does not appear to be an important risk factor. A Cochrane review found unclear benefit of recommending a low-salt diet in people with high or normal blood pressure. Blood pressure medication reduces cardiovascular disease in people at risk,  irrespective of age,  the baseline level of cardiovascular risk,  or baseline blood pressure.
Statins are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in people with a history of cardiovascular disease. Anti-diabetic medication may reduce cardiovascular risk in people with Type 2 Diabetes, although evidence is not conclusive. Aspirin has been found to be of only modest benefit in those at low risk of heart disease as the risk of serious bleeding is almost equal to the benefit with respect to cardiovascular problems. The use of vasoactive agents for people with pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease or hypoxemic lung diseases may cause harm and unnecessary expense.
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation following a heart attack reduces the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and leads to less hospitalizations. A Cochrane review found some evidence that yoga has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cholesterol, but studies included in this review were of low quality. While a healthy diet is beneficial, the effect of antioxidant supplementation vitamin E , vitamin C , etc.
Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment primarily focused on diet and lifestyle interventions. Proper CVD management necessitates a focus on MI and stroke cases due to their combined high mortality rate, keeping in mind the cost-effectiveness of any intervention, especially in developing countries with low or middle income levels.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in all regions except Africa. It is also estimated that by , over 23 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases each year. This may be secondary to a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Organizations such as the Indian Heart Association are working with the World Heart Federation to raise awareness about this issue.
There is evidence that cardiovascular disease existed in pre-history,  and research into cardiovascular disease dates from at least the 18th century. Recent areas of research include the link between inflammation and atherosclerosis  the potential for novel therapeutic interventions,  and the genetics of coronary heart disease.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cardiovascular disease Micrograph of a heart with fibrosis yellow and amyloidosis brown. Movat's stain. Specialty Cardiology Usual onset Older adults  Types Coronary artery diseases , stroke , heart failure , hypertensive heart disease , rheumatic heart disease , cardiomyopathy   Prevention Healthy eating , exercise, avoiding tobacco smoke, limited alcohol intake  Treatment Treating high blood pressure , high blood lipids , diabetes  Deaths Main article: Occupational cardiovascular disease.
See also: Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease and Salt and cardiovascular disease.
See also: Timeline of cardiovascular disease. January Archived PDF from the original on August The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Bibcode : PLoSO September Health Technology Assessment. Archived from the original on Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control 1 ed. World Health Organization. Retrieved Nov 11, Current Atherosclerosis Reports.
World Journal of Cardiology Review. October Nature Genetics.
International Journal of Cardiology. International Journal of Endocrinology. American Heart Association. The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. Each chapter is outlined with objectives, key points, current perspectives, and recommendations for future investigations and includes established and evidence-based knowledge, the author's personal opinions, areas of controversy, and future trends.
Electrical diseases of the heart : Genetics, mechanisms, treatment, prevention. N2 - "Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention" provides a unique contemporary and succinct distillation of the current status of recently delineated electrical diseases of the heart, emphasizing their common and diverse clinical features. AB - "Electrical Diseases of the Heart: Genetics, Mechanisms, Treatment, Prevention" provides a unique contemporary and succinct distillation of the current status of recently delineated electrical diseases of the heart, emphasizing their common and diverse clinical features.
Electrical diseases of the heart Genetics, mechanisms, treatment, prevention.
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